Impacts of Household Labor and Land Endowment on Rural-to-Urban Labor Migration:A Case Study on Mountainous Areas of Southern Ningxia
TIAN Yujun 1,2 ,LI Xiubin 2 ,MA Guoxia 3 (1.Waterborne Transportation Institute,MOT,Beijing 100088,China;2 .Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China;3 .Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning of the State Environmental Protection Administration,Beijing 100012,China)
With the development of urbanization and industrialization,the opportunity cost of farm labor has significantly increased in China,especially during the last two decades.The rise of the opportunity cost of farm labor primarily affects the behavior of household's resources allocation and production decisions,resulting in agricultural land-use changes and rural development,i.e.,it affects the decision of farm households in time allocation of family members between crop production and off-farm wage employment because the decision making rests on the calculation of member's opportunity cost of on-farm with return to crop production.If the income from off-farm is larger than the return to crop production,households tend to allocate more members to wage employment.However,there are some factors affecting rural-to-urban labor migration.As for the individual household being faced with the same macro policy and market circumstances,family structure and arable land endowment are the key factors that impact the decision of farm households in time allocation of family members.In this paper,we explored the link between labors rural-to-urban migration and arable land endowment in ecologically vulnerable regions using household survey data obtained in a mountainous area of southern Ningxia.It was found that there is evidence of the linkage between off-farm employment and household's labor as well as land characteristics.It was indicated that the household labor and land endowment have impacts on rural-to-urban labor migration.In terms of the simulations,explanatory variables with high statistical significance(p0.05)encompass the number of male laborers,the number of old laborers,and the acreage of slope lands.Meanwhile,the logistic model showed significant goodness of fit(i.e.,the Hosmer and Lemeshow test was statistical significance),and predictive accuracy(i.e.,the area under the ROR Curve accounts for 85.7%of the total area).It was also found that the household labor and land endowment have a marked impact on rural labor mobility, suggesting that labors with the greatest comparative advantage will be allocated to wage employment.On the contrary,labors with comparative disadvantages will be allocated to on-farm activities.Small households with more infertile lands prefer to allocate their members to off-farm employment.Households with more arable land tend to be of less mobility.Households with more slope lands and dry lands tend to participate in off-farm employment.
【Fund】： 国家科技支撑计划项目(编号:2006BAB15B02);; 国家自然科学基金项目(编号:40971062;40801051)
【CateGory Index】： F301.21
【CateGory Index】： F301.21