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《Journal of Systematics and Evolution》 2008-02
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Phylogenetic inference of the genus Bupleurum (Apiaceae) in Hengduan Mountains based on chromosome counts and nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences

Qi-Zhi WANG Xing-Jin HE Song-Dong ZHOU Yun-Ke WU Yan YU Yun-Li PANG (Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, College of Life Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China)  
Hengduan Mountains are the diversity center for the genus Bupleurum of Apiaceae in China. This paper reports chromosome numbers of six species and two varieties of Bupleurum, and for four species and two varieties their chromosome numbers are reported for the first time. The phylogeny of Bupleurum was investigated based on the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) of 14 taxa from the Hengduan Mountains, 3 taxa from the North China (Hebei and Heilongjiang), and 16 taxa from Africa and the Mediterranean region. Varia- tions in chromosome numbers and the ITS sequences were used to infer phylogenetic relationships between Bupleurum species in Hengduan Mountains. The results showed that the Hengduan Mountains might represent one of the frequency and diversity centers for Bupleurum. The ancestors of Bupleurum species in the Hengduan Mountains may be related to the woody B. fruticosum in North Africa, or the species in the western Mediterranean region. It is postulated that the ancestral population migrated into Hengduan Mountains through the Middle East and the Caucasus. Furthermore, the neo-endemic B. mundtii in South Africa appeared to be a close relative of the species in the Hengduan Mountains. In the trend of basic chromosome number evolution, x = 8 should be regarded as the ancestral basic number, while x = 6, 7 as the derived ones. The Bupleurum species in the Hengduan Moun- tains have been undergoing changes in the basic chromosome numbers or the ploidy level. The ITS phylogenetic tree showed that the Chinese species were divided into two clades: one with the basic chromosome number x = 8, and the other with x = 6, 7. The results rejected the previous infrageneric classification of Bupleurum in China. We further suggested to raise B. marginatum var. stenophyllum to species rank based on the combined evidence from morphology, karyology, pollen morphology, and the ITS phylogenetic tree.
【CateGory Index】: Q941
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