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Karyotypes of eight species of Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) from China

1WANG Yan-Hong 2 MA Jin-Shuang 2 LIU Quan-Ru 1(Department of Agronomy, Guangxi Agricultural University, Nanning 530005) 2 (Department of Biology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875)  
In this paper,eight species of the genus Euphorbia L. were cytologically studied. The three species of the subgenus Chamaesyce Raf., E. hirta, E. humifusa and E. hypericifolia, had chromosome numbers of 2n=18,22 and 32, with their basic chromosome numbers being x=9,11 and 8 respectively. The two species of the subgenus Poinsettia(Grah.) House. E. dentata, with 2n=28, a tetraploid, and E. cyathophora, with 2n=56, a octoploid, had both the basic chromosome number of x=7. The three species of the subgenus Esula Pers, E. lathyris, E. helioscopia and E. hylonoma, had chromosome number of 2n=20,42 and 20, with their basic numbers being x=10,7 and 10 respectively. The basic chromosome number of x=8 is new for E. hypericifolia, in which x=7 was previously reported. This indicates that this species had both ploidy(2n=4x=28, 8x=56) and dysploidy(x=7,8) variations. In E. dentata, there occurred also ploidy variation (2n=2x, 4x and 8x). A tetraploid cytotype of E. esula was found in China, its diploid cytotype and hexaploid cytotype being previously reported in North America, the Iberian Peninsula and some other European areas. Based on our results and those previously reported, we support the viewpoint that x=10 may be the original basic chromosome number of Euphorbia and discuss the role of polyploidy and dysploidy in the speciation and evolution of this genus.
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