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Non-point Source Pollution Control and Management

Chansheng He (Department of Geography,Western Michigan University,Kalamazoo,MI 49008,USA) Bojie Fu Liding Chen (Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100085)  
Compared to point source pollution,non point source pollution is more common and severe and its management is also more challenging.Non point source pollution originates from diffuse areas where some solvable or solid pollutants are produced.When these pollutants enter the waterbodies,such as lakes,river,reservoir and gulf with runoff during rainy season,water pollution or eutrophication could be induced.Normally,the soil erosion,application of chemical fertilizer and pesticide in farmland,piling of domestic animal's excrement or garbage in rural areas,surface runoff from urban areas and forest areas,irrigation with waster water in farmland and air dry wet deposit are considered as the principal sources of non point source pollution.Due to the influence of various factors,non point source pollution is characterized by random process,complex mechanism,widespread distribution,latent occurrence.Thus a practical difficulty is remained to study and control non point source pollution.Apart from sources,adverse effects and characteristics of non point source pollution were analyzed in this paper,the experiences and methods on managing and controlling non point source pollution in USA were also introduced.It will be helpful for Chinese government to make a feasible decision on this issue.
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