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Morphology and structure comparison on pulmonary trunk and lung tissue among yak,migrated cattle and lowland cattle

Liu Fengyun;Ma Lan;Hu Lin;Li Yuxian;Liu Shiming;Qi Shenggui;Wu Tianyi;Qinghai High Altitude Medical Research Institute;Institute of Pathology,School of Basic Medicine,Lanzou University;  
Objective:To acquire the mode of how to adapt to high altitude with chronic hypoxic complications of yak,migrated cattle and lowland cattle by comparing the morphologial and histological characteristics of pulmorary trunks and lung tissues among the above three types of cattle.Methods:The samples of pulmonary trunks and lung tissues were taken from yaks born and living permanently at 3 000- 4 000 m,and cattle migrating from lowlands to high altitude for several generations at2 500 m both in Qinghai-Tibet plateau,lowland cattle living at 1 300 m in Gansu plain as a control group.The tissue samples were fixed,sectioned,stained,and observed under optical and electron microscope.Results:(1) The elastic tissue of the media of the pulmonary trunk was mainly formed by elastic fibrils and collagens in 98%yaks and in 55%migrated cattle,whereas there was a distinct muscular and elastic media of pulmonary trunk in 100%of lowland cattle and in 45%of the altitude migrated cattle;(2) The structure of pulmonary tunica serosa of both the yaks and the migrated cattle showed compactness,and with a distinct elastic fibrils under mesotheleum,in contrast to lowland cattle,which showed a loose pulmonary tunica serosa with a distinct collagen under mesotheleum;(3) As compared with the lowland cattle,the longitudinal folds of the terminal bronchioli mucosa showed more pronounced in yaks and lowland cattle;(4) The lining epithelium of respiratory bronchioles showed mainly single layer or a pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium with cilia was observed on most of the cells,and there was still the formation of mucosal folds in most yaks,whereas there was mainly a single layer columnar epithelium with cilia observed on some of the cells in lowland cattle;(5) The pulmonary small arteries were thin-walled and the pulmonary arterioles were devoid of a muscular coat in yak and lowland cattle,whereas a thickened pulmonary small arteries and a distinct muscularization of the pulmonary arterioles in migrated cattle.Conclusion:The morphology and structure of the pulmonary trunk and lung tissue of the yak have the unique pattern adapted to the plateau,and the migrated catties have both the features of yak and lowland cattle during their acclimatization.
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