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Rockfall Disaster Simulation and Risk Assessment on the Dujiangyan-Wenchuan Highway after"5.12"Earthquake

LIU Hongjiang 1,2 ,LAN Hengxing 2 (1.Hazard Economic Center,School of Urban Management and Resource&Environment,Yunnan Universityo f Finance and Economics,Kunming 650221,China;2 .State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environment Information System,Institute of Geographic Sciences andN atural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China)  
Rockfall becomes one type of serious secondary disasters after"5.12"Wenchuan earthquake.Risk control technology is an important part for risk management,especially for post-reconstruction.Rockfall study is therefore essential for its hazard mitigation.The Dujiangyan-Wenchuan highway located near the epicenter of the quake was examined.Key problems about rockfall hazard,such as constructing momentum and motion models,simulation,and risk assessment methods were discussed.Almost 210,000 rockfall points were simulated and most of the trajectory path vectors were analyzed.The motion processing model for rockfall simulation was established through dynamics and kinematic analysis.AO-based software of RA(Rock Analyst)which was developed under the ArcGIS9.x platform was built,through which some critical information for rockfall risk assessment,such as trajectory path,frequency,speed,energy,and jump height,can be obtained and simulated for complex mountainous areas.For RA extension,the trajectory path vector is an elementary step for its following statistic analysis,such as frequency and energy jump height,or even for subsequent risk control analysis.It was shown that many trajectory vectors passed through Chediguan Highway Bridge in the simulation.RA was applied to the extremely destroyed area along the reconstruction lifeline of the Dujiangyan-Wenchusan highway in"5.12"Wenchuan earthquake. A SPOT5 satellite image of 2.5 m resolution pixel acquired on May 22,2008 was used for deriving the source information of rockfall distribution.Meanwhile,DEMs of high accuracy derived from 1: 50,000 DLG topographic databases were used to construct the geomorphic surface of slope for simulation.Based on the simulation and field identification,rockfall risk assessment was realized.Results show that areas of the highest risk were primarily concentrated in two places:One was along the segment of Shapingguan-Chediguan-Zhaojiaotuo,and the other was Yangdian-Daping-Feishaguan.The most serious risk took place from Lianshan Village to Caopo Village.The two points of the highest risk were Chediguan and Tiaoguan,which was verified by the serious rockfall hazard occurring on July 29,2009.The simulation and evaluation methods for risk management of rockfall disasters and control provide a rapid and accurate technique for rockfall risk assessment over large areas.
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