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Stereoscopic monitoring technology and applications for the atmospheric environment in China

LIU WenQing;CHEN ZhenYi;LIU JianGuo;XIE PinHua;Key Laboratory of Environmental Optical and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences;School of Environmental and Photoelectric Technology, University of Science and Technology of China;  
Human activity and natural sources have released a large number of pollutants into the atmospheric environment, which seriously influences the survival conditions of many creatures of the planet. The economy has grown rapidly in recent years; however China is now faced with some of the world's most severe and complex environmental problems. The promotion of atmospheric and environmental science research is imperative in solving the climate and environmental issues with which human beings are now faced. With obvious temporal and spatial change features, typical geographical conditions and regional climatic characteristics, these factors influence air quality and climatic change. Therefore, interdisciplinary research on optics and the environment is emphasized with the goal of producing comprehensive and stereoscopic monitoring technology for the atmospheric environment. Increased monitoring technology level of the atmospheric environment and the development of remote sensing observation methods, including online, rapid, and stereoscopic detection of atmospheric environmental data, are essential in understanding the dynamic change process and source mechanism of various components in the atmosphere, as well as in understanding their influence on environment and climate. In recent years, newly developed laser/spectrum technology was used to study trace pollutants and atmospheric compositions, including UV/visible/IR spectrum technology, laser spectrum technology, and optical remote sensing technology. Multiple detection technology was formed through absorption, a scattering and emission process caused by mutual interaction between light and substances in the atmosphere. This technology is capable of rapid and real-time detection of atmospheric trace gas, atmospheric aerosol, greenhouse gas, atmospheric wind fields, aqueous vapor, temperature, and atmospheric pollution. More specifically, differential optical absorption spectroscopy(DOAS) is a continuously developing spectroscopy technology, and it is widely used in the detection of atmospheric components. The Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS) has taken the lead in conducting research using the active DOAS technique, the ground-based passive DOAS technique(multi-axis DOAS and mobile DOAS), and the airborne and space-based DOAS technique in China. A unique MAX-DOAS observation network was established in Eastern China to perform long-term observation of trace gases(e.g., NO_2, SO_2, etc.) and aerosol in the troposphere(since 2008 for the majority of the sites, and since 2012 for other sites). This observation research provides an effective optical remote sensing technique for the measurement of distributions and emissions from point and area sources and high-tech support for emission control of pollutants. Light detection and ranging(LIDAR) remote sensing techniques, both ground-based and airborne, were developed for measuring of atmospheric components. These established, advanced LIDAR systems, most of which were first built in China, were used for measuring the vertical profiles of atmospheric aerosol, temperature, water vapor, pollution, and gases(e.g. NO_2, SO_2, O_3, etc.) in the boundary layer, greenhouse gas(CO_2) in the troposphere, temperature and ozone in the stratosphere, and wind with a high vertical resolution. According to the measurement needs of industrial areas(e.g., petrochemical industry zones and large garbage disposal fields) and unexpected spill accidents involving dangerous chemicals, the research and development platform technique of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum(FTIR) has been implemented in many field campaigns. The aim of FTIR is to study regional air pollution(including the distribution, transport, and evolution of pollutants and source identification), as well as free atmospheric radicals and photo-chemical intermediates and production. The temporal and spatial distribution of atmospheric composition(e.g., greenhouse gases, pollutant gases, and aerosols) is observed by ground-based troposphere observation networks. These networks also provide remote satellite sensing ground validation.
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